The Laws of Magic are a set of rules of the White Council concerning the use of magic. They are intended to prevent the abuse of magic, and protect wizards and normal humans from harmful magic. A wizard violating the Laws, on purpose or unknowingly, is termed warlock. Being found violating the Laws has dire consequences, and the punishment sentenced by the White Council and its Wardens is often death.
The Laws Edit
First Law of MagicEdit
The First Law of Magic forbids the killing with magic, specifically the killing of humans.
Wizards of the White Council are forbidden to kill human beings through the use of their power. This is the Law that Harry broke in killing his mentor, Justin DuMorne (Justin Morningway, in the television series). Self-defense is very occasionally allowed as a mitigating factor, though the taint of killing another with magic often remains. This Law is also a primary reason Wardens wield swords. Several times throughout the series, Wardens have fought to kill with magic against other human wizards; it's possible Wardens are given somewhat of a free pass in regards to this Law in combat circumstances. The Law is very flexible, however, in regards to things that are not actually human. A wizard may kill, for example, a vampire, ghoul, or any being of the Nevernever without penalty.
If a person uses magic to kill another human the penalty is death. The trial, if there is one, would last maybe fifteen minutes tops and the execution would happen immediately afterward—beheading by sword.
Second Law of Magic Edit
The Second Law of Magic forbids the shapeshifting of other beings.
This demonstrates why, despite Harry's occasional threats, we will most likely never see him actually turn anyone into a frog. Even if done successfully (it is an extremely difficult spell), transformation of another's body against their will – changing a man into an animal, for example – creates an imbalance between body and mind that ultimately degrades the transformed subject's mind to an animal state as well. Transformation of oneself through magic is not necessarily as destructive, but still risky and potentially hazardous.
Third Law of Magic Edit
The Third Law of Magic forbids the use of psychomancy.
Forcible magical violation of someone's mind by extracting knowledge against their will is inherently destructive – Harry describes it as not black, but "dark, dark, dark gray". Mind magic is so dangerous that the Council has not even dared trying to explore how to build better defenses, which gives an advantage to black wizards less bound by such scruples.
Fourth Law of Magic Edit
The Fourth Law of Magic forbids the binding of any being against its will.
Enthrallment is the term for dominating another human's mind and personality through magic by binding their will to your own; it is not the same as compelling beings of the Nevernever through arrangements or exchanges. So long as the wizard in question does not actually control the being through magic, the law is not broken. A popular alternative is trapping the creature in a magic circle until it accepts the terms of a bargain, though some Wardens have ignored this distinction in their zeal. As with mind-probing, magically controlling the mind of another person is an inherently destructive and evil act – it is almost impossible to control safely and precisely, and taints the user of the power as well as the subject even if done for the best of intentions. This taint often sends the user into a self-destructive downward spiral, where every act of magical mind control further twists the user and makes more such acts likelier; if the cycle progresses far enough, the user becomes functionally sociopathic, and impossible to rehabilitate.
Fifth Law of Magic Edit
The Fifth Law of Magic forbids the use of necromancy.
This Law covers the research and practice of necromancy, described as the summoning, binding, and exploitation of the unwilling dead and ectomancy, the contacting of willing spirits by mediums. It would also forbid any attempt to genuinely resurrect someone from the dead back to true life. In the universe of the novels, nobody is presented as knowing for certain what kind of afterlife, if any, exists; ghosts, even the most apparently intelligent and self-aware, are stated to be only psychic echoes of people created by violent death, not the actual souls of those people themselves. As the Laws are intended to protect humans against the abuse of magic, a loophole in this law (exploited by Harry in Dead Beat) allows the use of necromancy on non-human dead, though the practice is still heavily frowned upon and viewed with a wary eye.
Sixth Law of Magic Edit
The Sixth Law of Magic forbids time travel, with the purpose of avoiding the paradoxes due to any attempt to change the past through temporal manipulation. Even divination of the future is frowned upon in all but the vaguest, most general instances.
Seventh Law of Magic Edit
In Cold Days, the Outer Gates are described as a large (possibly the largest) entrance to the universe. Set in a gigantic wall, between two towers each the size of the Chrysler building, they are powerfully warded, and constantly defended from Outsiders by the Gatekeeper and the immense army of the Winter Court.
Outsiders are beings from beyond the Gates, and are among the deadliest threats to humanity known – their sheer existence is antithetical to the universe (this may be a Lovecraft-inspired idea, as the Necronomicon has been mentioned in Blood Rites and Backup, and at least some of the beings living on the other side of the Gates are dubbed "the Old Ones" by Harry).
It appears that the Gatekeeper's primary responsibility is to prevent Outsiders from infiltrating the Gates by working with Winter's forces in battle against the onslaught of the Outsiders. Outsiders have an immunity or at the very least considerable resistance to most mortal magic, thus most applications of magic versus Outsiders are often indirect. In Cold Days, Harry used Soulfire infused pyromancy and hurts an Outsider directly; thus it could be argued that Soulfire might be more effective in direct application versus Outsiders unless there is just something special about Harry that allows his magic to hurt Outsiders (or both).
One Outsider named by Titania as "Nemesis" has the ability to "infect" beings from the "Dresdenverse" with a discordant influence that seems to both allow and motivate—if not force—infected entities to act in opposition to their innate purpose or true motivations (example: this infection allowed Maeve, a High Sidhe, to actively lie). It is strongly hinted that The Circle is a group of entities that are infected by Nemesis.
General notes Edit
Margaret LeFay strove for the Council to include more laws that would prevent injustices such as wizards bilking people out of their money, intimidating them, stealing, or destroying property. According to Luccio, the consequence of changing the Laws of Magic is that the Council would end up intervening in human affairs and ultimately into political affairs which would cause them to take the side of one country over another where there was perceived injustice. Seeing how the White Council had members in all countries, and that the wizards had no better idea of who was right or who was wrong then any other human, this would have been a disaster, and it would force members to turn on their own. The Council would descend into civil war and likely break apart. There would then be no protection for humanity against magic or the supernatural world.
Another consequence would be that if the council involved itself in mortal affairs it would seek more political power, more control and there is no better tool for gaining more power than black magic. So the council limits itself. Any wizard is free to act as he chooses as long as he doesn't break the Laws of Magic. Sans black magic, there is a limit to how much damage an individual can perpetrate against a mortal society. The Laws are not about justice, the White Council is not about justice, they are about restraining power.
- ↑ Jim Butcher radio interview @1:14:22
- ↑ Blood Rites, ch. 25
- ↑ Dead Beat, ch. 31
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Turn Coat, ch. 28
- ↑ Changes, ch. 19